The Bay Area/Delta Bioregion -- An Overview
The Bay Area/Delta Bioregion is one of the most populous, encompassing the San Francisco Bay Area and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The bioregion is internationally renown for the computer industry of the Silicon Valley and the wine-producing vineyards of Napa and Sonoma counties. Environmentally, the bioregion is the focus of a great debate over conflicting demands for the water that flows through the Delta, supplying two-thirds of California's drinking water, irrigating farmland, and sustaining fish and wildlife and their habitat. Under a historic accord in 1994, competing interests initiated a process for working together to fix the Delta.
Location, Cities, People
The bioregion fans out from San Francisco Bay in a jagged semi-circle that takes in all or part of 12 counties, including the state's top six in family income: Marin, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, Alameda, Solano, San Mateo, as well as the counties of San Francisco, Sonoma, Napa, San Joaquin, and parts of Sacramento, and Yolo. Major cities include San Francisco, Santa Rosa, Oakland, Berkeley, Vallejo, Concord, and San Jose. Though of moderate size, the Bay-Delta Bioregion is the second most populous bioregion, next to the South Coast, with 6.6 million people, based on the 1990 census.
The Bay Area/Delta Bioregion extends from the Pacific Ocean to the Sacramento Valley and San Joaquin Valley bioregions to the northeast and southeast, and a short stretch of the eastern boundary joins the Sierra Bioregion at Amador and Calaveras counties. The bioregion is bounded by the Klamath/North Coast on the north and the Central Coast Bioregion to the south.
Major highways are Interstate 80, which concludes its transcontinental journey in San Francisco, I-280, I-580 and I-680, U.S. 101. State highways include 1, 12, 24, 29, 84, 92, 113, 116, 121, and 128.
Tourist Attractions, Industries
Bay Bridge at sunset
San Francisco, famed for cable cars, Chinatown, Fisherman's Wharf, and the Golden Gate Bridge, is a top tourist attraction of the bioregion. The idyllic Sonoma Coast features remote beaches, quaint villages and historic spots, such as Fort Ross, an early 19th century Russian fur trading post and site of the nation's oldest weather station, established in 1874. The rustic wine country of the Napa and Sonoma valleys are major visitor draws, and Point Reyes National Seashore in Marin County is one of the best bird watching areas in the West, with 45 percent of North America's bird species.
Prominent industries of this bioregion include banking, high-technology and biotechnology, wine-making, fishing, shipping, oil refining, think tanks, dairy farming, beer brewing, and fruit ranching. The Pacific coastal area of this bioregion offers spectacular scenery and places to visit, such as Point Reyes National Seashore, John Muir Woods National Monument, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and numerous state parks and state beaches. A 400-mile long Bay Trail encircling San Francisco Bay is being completed that provides public access for hiking, bicycling, water sports, wildlife viewing, historic sites, and much more
IBM building in San Jose
Climate and Geography
The temperatures in this Mediterranean climate don't vary much year-around. The coast experiences relatively cool, often foggy summers, mild falls, and chilly, rainy winters. Further inland, hot dry summers and warm autumns are followed by mild, wet winters. Snowfall is rare. The bioregion is mostly hilly with low coastal mountains and several peaks rising above 3,000 feet, including Mt. Diablo at 3,849 feet, in a state park. Coastal prairie provides grazing for wild and domestic animals, including dairy cattle.
The bioregion is named for its two major watersheds, San Francisco Bay and the Delta. Major rivers include the Russian, Gualala, Napa, Petaluma, and Alameda, and Putah Creeks. A network of reservoirs and canals comprise the State Water Project delivery system. Lake Berryessa in Napa County is the largest lake.
Plants and Wildlife
The habitats and vegetation of the Bay Area/Delta Bioregion are as varied as the geography. Coastal prairie scrub, mixed hardwoods and valley oaks are found among the rolling hills and mountains that descend to the ocean. Redwoods abound in Santa Cruz County. Coastal salt marsh lies around San Francisco Bay, and freshwater marshes are found in the Delta. Eucalyptus, manzanita, northern coastal scrub, California buttercups, goldfields, and Tiberon mariposa lily also are popular in the bioregion. Rare plants include Marin western flax, Baker's manzanita, Point Reyes checkerbloom, and Sonoma sunshine. Salt and freshwater marshes provide pickelweed, great bulrush, saltbush, and cattail.
Wetlands in the Bay-Delta -- brackish and freshwater -- furnish resting, nesting, feeding and breeding places for birds and waterfowl along the Pacific Flyway. These marshes, rich in biodiversity, are popular and necessary wintering spots for migrating birds.
Birds include canvasback, western grebe, black-crowned night heron, great egret, snowy egret, California brown pelican, white pelican, gull, acorn woodpecker, golden eagle, western bluebird, Caspian tern, American avocet, and cedar waxwing. Marine life includes Chinook salmon, harbor seal, sea lion, leopard shark, and bat ray. Other wildlife includes grey fox, mule deer, bobcat, raccoon, Pacific tree frog, and the swallowtail and painted lady butterfly.
Endangered species include the California least tern, California black rail and clapper rail, Smith's blue butterfly, salt marsh harvest mouse, California freshwater shrimp, northwestern pond turtle, and tidewater goby.
| Bay-Delta Bioregion | | CERES Home |